Factors influencing hemoglobin levels in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study in Iraq

Saad Ahmed Ali Jadoo (1) , Raghad Emad Salman (2) , Alyaa Younis Ali (3) , Ali Ihsan Haider (4)
(1) Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Diyala, 32001, Diyala, Iraq , Iraq
(2) Department of Medical Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Diyala, 32001, Diyala, Iraq , Iraq
(3) Department of Medical Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Diyala, 32001, Diyala, Iraq , Iraq
(4) Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Diyala, 32001, Diyala, Iraq , Iraq

Abstract

Background: Anemia remains a significant global health challenge, prompting the need for collaborative interventions. This study aims to evaluate factors associated with anemia among pregnant women in Iraq. 


Methods: A cross-sectional study was from January 1st to March 31st, 2024 at Al-Batool Teaching Hospital's obstetrics and gynecology outpatient clinic in Diyala province, Iraq, using a modified systematic sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and the Chi-square test were employed to discern significant differences between variables, with a P-value < 0.05 indicating significance.


Results: A total of 173 pregnant women, averaging 26.88 years (SD±5.85), participated. Mild to moderate anemia was prevalent in over two-thirds (72.3%), while severe anemia affected 27.7%. Most were in the second trimester (43.4%), with an interpregnancy interval of <2 years (34.7%) and 1-2 children (42.8%). Abortion history was noted in 35.3%, stillbirth in 15.0%, and cesarean section in 61.8%. Furthermore, 81.5% reported nausea and vomiting. Private (ARO) and home-filtered water were primary water sources (34.1% and 31.8%). About 43.4% owned a garden, while 65.9% purchased produce. Most (63.6%) had two daily meals, with 69.9% altering food habits and 59.0% avoiding certain foods, primarily due to maternal obesity. Additionally, 61.3% took iron and folate supplements, and 26.6% consumed coffee. Significant associations were observed, with one daily meal correlating with severe anemia (χ2 = 12.679, p = 0.002), and food avoidance due to maternal obesity linked to severe anemia (χ2 = 9.158, p = 0.027).


Conclusion: Inadequate dietary habits and insufficient nutritional education significantly contribute to severe anemia among pregnant women. Implementing health education and early screening strategies can effectively prevent and control this issue.

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Authors

Saad Ahmed Ali Jadoo
saadalezzi@uodiyala.edu.iq (Primary Contact)
Raghad Emad Salman
Alyaa Younis Ali
Ali Ihsan Haider
Factors influencing hemoglobin levels in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study in Iraq. (2024). Journal of Lifelong DentoMedical Health, 1(1), 01-06. https://jldmhealth.com/Jldmh/article/view/1

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Factors influencing hemoglobin levels in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study in Iraq. (2024). Journal of Lifelong DentoMedical Health, 1(1), 01-06. https://jldmhealth.com/Jldmh/article/view/1
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